Is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea,Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north. The total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq mi), making it the 71st largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the sixth most populous member of the European Union, and the most populous post-communist member of the European Union. Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions.












Many historians trace the establishment of a Polish state to 966, when Mieszko I,ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing theUnion of Lublin, forming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth gradually ceased to exist in the years 1772–1795, when the Polish territory was partitioned among Prussia, the Russian Empire, and Austria. Poland regained its independence (as the Second Polish Republic) at the end of World War I, in 1918.
Two decades later, in September 1939, World War II started with the invasions of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union (as part of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact). More than six million Polish citizens died in the war. In 1944, a Soviet-backed Polish provisional government was formed which, after a period of conflict, falsified a referendum and an election, giving rise to a satellite state of the Soviet Union, Polish Republic (Rzeczpospolita Polska), renamed to the Peoples Republic of Poland (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa) in 1952. During the Revolutions of 1989, Polands Marxist–Leninist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy under the name Rzeczpospolita Polska, often referred to as the "Third Polish Republic" (III Rzeczpospolita).
Despite the vast destruction the country experienced during World War II, Poland managed to preserve much of its cultural wealth. There are 14 heritage sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage and 54 Historical Monuments and many objects of cultural heritage. Since the end of the communist period, Poland has achieved a "very high" ranking in terms of human development, as well as gradually improving economic freedom. Poland is the sixth largest economy within the European Union and among the fastest rising economic states in the world. The country is the sole member nation of the European Union to have escaped a decline in GDP and in recent years was able to create probably the most varied GDP growth in its history.


According to estimates produced by the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS), at the end of 2007 Poland had a population of 37,115,000, which translates into an average population density of 122 people/km2 (urban 1105 per 1 km2, rural 50 per 1 km2). 61.5% of the Polish population lives in urban areas, a number which is slowly diminishing. Poland is the 33rd most populous country in the world (9th in Europe, with 5.4% of European population). Total population of Poland is almost stagnant (population growth was 0.08%). Average life expectancy was 70.5 for men and 78.9 for women. In 2009 it is expected to be 73.1 for men and 79.5 for women. Population distribution is uneven. Ethnically, Poland is a very homogeneous country, with 96.7% of population being Polish.


Transport in Poland involves air traffic, waterways, roads and railroads.
As a country located at the cross-roads of Europe, Poland, with its developed economy, is a nation with a large and increasingly modern network of transport infrastructure.

Railway: Poland is served by an extensive network of railways. In most cities the main railway station is located near a city centre and is well connected to the local transportation system. The infrastructure is operated by PKP PLK ( PKP-Polskie Linie Kolejowe : PKP-Polish Rail Lines), part of state-run PKP Group. The rail network is very dense in western and northern Poland, while eastern part of the country is less developed.
The only high-speed rail line (though by most definitions, real high-speed rail only includes speeds over 200 km/h) in central-eastern Europe is the Central Rail Line (Poland), Centralna Magistrala Kolejowa (CMK). It has a length of 223 km (139 mi), and was built in 1971–1977; it links Warsaw with Kraków and Katowice. Most trains on the CMK operate at speeds up to 160 km/h (99 mph), but since December 2014 new Alstom Pendolino ED250 trains operate on a 90 km section of the CMK at 200 km/h (124 mph), and improvements under way should raise the authorized speed to 200 km/h (124 mph) on most of the the line. In test runs on the CMK in November 2013 a new Pendolino ED250 train set a new Polish speed record of 293 km/h (182 mph).

Highway: Polish public roads are grouped into categories related to administrative division. Poland has 412,264 km (256,170 mi) of public roads, of which 131,863 km (81,940 mi) are unsurfaced (2011):

1. National roads (Classes A, S, GP and exceptionally G): 18,801 km (11,680 mi), 1.9 km (1 mi) unsurfaced
2. Voivodeship roads (Classes G, Z and exceptionally GP): 28,476 km (17,690 mi), 63.2 km (39 mi) unsurfaced
3. Powiat roads (Classes G, Z and exceptionally L): 127,743 km (79,380 mi), 11,379 km (7,070 mi) unsurfaced
4. Gmina roads (Classes L, D and exceptionally Z): 237,244 km (147,420 mi), 120,419 km (74,820 mi) unsurfaced According to national roads state report by GDDKiA in 2008 1/4 of national roads were capable of handling 11.5 tonnes per axle loads. 

  Airport: The most important airport in Poland is Warsaw Frederic Chopin International Airport. Warsaws airport is the main international hub for LOT Polish Airlines and currently serves as the destination for around 75% of all major international flights into Poland. With the development, and upcoming privatisation of LOT in 2011, the airport is hoping to see yet more routes opened to destinations around the globe.
In addition to Warsaw Chopin, Wrocław, Gdańsk, Katowice, Kraków and Poznań all have major international airports.
In preparation for the Euro 2012 football championships being jointly hosted by Poland and Ukraine, a number of airports around the country were renovated and redeveloped. This included the building of new terminals with an increased number of jetways and stands at both Copernicus Airport in Wrocław and Lech Wałęsa Airport in Gdańsk.





polski (Polish)


Witam Cię (Sg>Sg)
Witamy Cię (Pl>Sg)
Witam Was (Sg>Pl)
Witamy Was (Pl>Pl)
Witam (Sg>Any)
Witamy (Pl>Any)
Witaj (Any>Sg)
Witajcie (Any>Pl)

(General greeting)

Cześć (inf)
Siema (vinf)
Siemano (vinf)

Hello (on phone)


How are you?

Jak się Pan(i) miewa? (frm)
Jak się masz (inf)

Reply to How are you?

Bardzo dobrze, dziękuję. A Pan(i)? (frm)
Bardzo dobrze, dziękuję. A Ty? (inf)

Long time no see

Dawno się nie widzieliśmy! (no see)
Dawno się nie słyszeliśmy (no hear)
Kopę lat! (inf)

Whats your name?

Jak się Pan nazywa? (frm>m)
Jak się Pani nazywa? (frm>f)
Jak ma Pan na imię? (frm>m)
Jak ma Pani na imię? (frm>f)
Jak się nazywasz? (inf)
Jak masz na imię? (inf)

My name is ...

Mam na imię ...
Nazywam się ...

Where are you from?

Skąd Pan jest? (frm>m)
Skąd Pani jest? (frm>f)
Skąd jesteś? (inf)

Im from ...

Pochodzę z ...

Pleased to meet you

Bardzo mi miło
Miło mi (inf)
Miło mi Pana poznać (frm>m)
Miło mi Panią poznać (frm>f)
Miło mi Was poznać (inf sg>pl) 
Miło mi Państwa poznać (frm sg>pl)

Good morning 
(Morning greeting)

Dzień dobry

Good afternoon 
(Afternoon greeting)

Dzień dobry
Miłego popołudnia
Dobrego popołudnia (used, though rarely, when leaving)

Good evening 
(Evening greeting)

Dobry wieczór
Miłego wieczoru
Dobrego wieczoru (used, though rarely, when leaving)

Good night


(Parting phrases)

Do widzenia (frm)
Do zobaczenia
Cześć (inf)

Good luck


(Toasts used when drinking)

Na zdrowie!

Have a nice day

Miłego dnia!

Bon appetit / 
Have a nice meal


Bon voyage / 
Have a good journey

Szczęśliwej drogi!
Szerokiej drogi! (said to car drivers)
Szczęśliwej podróży!
Miłej podróży!

I dont know

Nie wiem

I understand


I dont understand

Nie rozumiem

Please speak more slowly

Proszę mówić wolniej (frm)
Mów wolniej (inf)

Please write it down

Czy mógłby Pan to napisać? (frm>m)
Czy mógłby Pani to napisać? (frm>f)
Czy możesz to zapisać? (inf)

Do you speak English?

Czy mówisz po angielsku? (sg/inf)
Czy mówi pan po angielsku? (frm/>m)
Czy mówi pani po angielsku? (frm/>f)
Czy mówicie po angielsku? (pl/inf)
Czy panowie mówią po angielsku? (pl/frm/>m)
Czy panie mówią po angielsku? (pl/frm/>f)

Do you speak Polish?

Czy mówi Pan po polsku? (frm>m)
Czy mówi Pani po polsku? (frm>f)
Czy mówisz po polsku? (inf)
Mówi Pan po polsku? (frm>m)
Mówi Pani po polsku? (frm>f)
Mówisz po polsku? (inf)

Yes, a little
(reply to Do you speak ...?)

Tak, trochę (quite a bit)
Tak troszkę (a little)

Speak to me in Polish

Ze mną można rozmawiać po polsku

How do you say ... in Polish

Jak się mówi ... po polsku?

Excuse me


How much is this?

Ile to kosztuje?





Thank you

Serdecznie dziękuję
Dziękuję bardzo
Dziękuję pięknie

Reply to thank you

Proszę bardzo
Nie ma za co (inf)

Wheres the toilet?

Gdzie jest toaleta?

This gentleman will pay for everything

Ten Pan za wszystko zapłaci

This lady will pay for everything

Ta Pani za wszystko zapłaci

Would you like to dance with me?

Czy chcesz ze mną zatańczyć? (inf)
Zatańczymy? (inf)
Czy mogę prosić do tańca? (frm)
Mogę prosić Panią do tańca? (frm>f)

I miss you

Tęsknię za tobą (sg)
Tęsknię za wami (pl)

I love you

Kocham Cię

Get well soon

Wroć prędko do zdrowia!
Wracaj do zdrowia!
Zdrowiej szybko!
Kuruj się!

Leave me alone!

Proszę zostawić mnie w spokoju! (frm)
Zostaw mnie w spokoju! (inf)
Zostaw mnie! (inf)




Pali się!



Call the police!

Proszę zadzwonić po Policję! (frm)
Proszę wezwać policję! (frm)
Zadzwoń po policję! (inf) 
Wezwij policję! (inf)

Christmas and New Year greetings

Wesołych świąt i szczęśliwego Nowego Roku

Easter greetings

Wesołych Świąt Wielkanocnych!
Wesołego Alleluja!
Szczęśliwej Wielkanocy!
Wesołych Świąt Wielkiej Nocy!

Birthday greetings

Wszystkiego najlepszego z okazji urodzin
Wszystkiego najlepszego!
Sto lat!






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