Ukraine (i/juːˈkreɪn/; Ukrainian: Україна, tr. Ukraina [ukrɑˈjinɑ]) is a country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Belarusto the northwest, Poland and Slovakia to the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively. Ukraine is currently in territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean peninsula which Russia annexed in 2014 but which Ukraine and most of the international community recognize as Ukrainian. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi), making it the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world, and a population of about 44.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world

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Ukraine, the largest country totally in Europe, has many diverse and interesting geographic features.

As for mountains, the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains stretch across western Ukraine. The countrys highest point is located there; Hoverla Mountain, at 2061 m (6762 ft) tall.

The Crimean Mountains front the southern edges of the Crimean Peninsula, and some lower, heavily-eroded mountains extend into Russia just north of the Sea of Azov.

Much of central Ukraine is covered by plateaus, and fertile plains (steppes), somewhat hilly areas of grasslands and shrub lands. The Black Sea Coastal Lowlands cover the southern edges of the country.

Ukraine is bordered by the waters of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Major rivers include the Desna, Dnieper, Dniester, Donets and the Southern Bug. Numerous waterfalls are found in both the Carpathian and Crimean Mountains.

The Dnieper River, one of the major rivers of Europe (fourth by length) flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, to the Black Sea. The rivers total length is 2,285 km (1,420 mi).


Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate                          50.4%,
Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate                  26.1%,
Ukrainian Greek Catholic                                                8%,
Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox                              7.2%,
Roman Catholic                                                              2.2%,
Protestant                                                                       2.2%,
Jewish                                                                             0.6%,
other                                                                               3.2%


Transport in Ukraine includes ground transportation (automobile and rail), water (sea and river), aerial transportation, and pipelines. The transportation sector accounts for roughly 11% of the countrys gross domestic product and 7% of total employment.
The public railways in Ukraine are managed by the state railway company Ukrzaliznytsia[2]
Network length (2010)
The length of the railway network Ukraine ranks third in Europe (21.7000 kilometres of track).
•    22,000 km (13,670 mi) broad gauge of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in), ~10,000 km (6,214 mi) electrified (3 kV DC and 25 kV AC)
•    201 km (125 mi) of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge, electrifie
Rail links with adjacent countries
•    Belarus
•    Russia
•    Moldova
•    Romania (break-of-gauge: 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) / 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in))
•    Hungary (break-of-gauge: 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) / 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in))
•    Slovakia (break-of-gauge: 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) / 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in))
•    Poland (break-of-gauge: 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) / 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) plus a standard gauge cross-border cargo line)

The development of public roads in Ukraine is currently lagging behind the pace of motorisation in the country. During 1990-2010 the length of the highways network hardly increased at all. The density of highways in Ukraine is 6.6 times lower than in France (respectively 0.28 and 1.84 kilometres of roads per square kilometre area of the country). The length of express roads in Ukraine is 0.28 thousand km (in Germany - 12.5 thousand kilometres in France - 7.1 thousand kilometres), and the level of funding for each kilometre of road in Ukraine is around 5,5 - 6 times less than in those locations.
This is due to a number of objective reasons, including that the burden of maintaining the transport network per capita is significantly higher than in European countries because of Ukraines relatively. low population density (76 people per square kilometre), low purchasing power of citizens (1/5 of the Eurozones purchasing capacity), relatively low car ownership and the nations large territory.
The operational condition of roads is very poor; around 51.1% of roads do not meet minimum standards, and 39.2% require major rebuilds. The average speed on roads in Ukraine 2 - 3 times lower than in Western countries.
•    Total: 169,477 km
•    Paved: 164,732 km (102,360 mi) (including 15 km (9 mi) of expressways); note - these roads, classified as "hard-surfaced", include both hard-paved highways and some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads.
•    Unpaved: 4,745 km (2,948 mi) (2004)

•    Total: 412 (2012)
Airports with paved runways
•    Total: 179
•    Over 3,047 m: 13
•    2,438 to 3,047 m: 49
•    1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
•    914 to 1,523 m: 6
•    Under 914 m: 89 (2012)
Major airports are: Kiev Boryspil Airport, Dnipropetrovsk Airport, Kharkiv Airport, Lviv Airport, Donetsk Airport, Odessa Airport, and Simferopol Airport.
Airports with unpaved runways
•    Total: 233
•    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
•    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
•    914 to 1,523 m: 9
•    Under 914 m: 216 (2012)
•    Total: 7 (2012)




Українська (Ukrainian)


Ласкаво просимо (Laskavo prosymo)
Вітаємо (Vitajemo)

(General greeting)

Вітаю (Vitayu) - frm
Агов (Ahov) - inf

Hello (on phone)

Алло (Allo)
Слухаю (Sluchaju)

How are you?

Як ти поживаєш? (Jak ty po�yvajesh?) - inf
Як ви поживаєте? (Jak vy po�yvajete?) - frm
Як справи? (Jak spravy?)

Reply to How are you?

Дякую, добре. А ви? (Djakuju, dobre. A vy?)

Long time no see

Давно не бачились (Davno ne bačiliś)

Whats your name?

Як тебе звати (Jak tebe zvaty?) inf/sg
Як вас звати (Jak vas zvaty?) frm/inf/pl

My name is ...

Мене звуть (Mene zvuť ...)

Where are you from?

Звідки ви? (Zvidky vy?)

I am from ...

Я з ... (Ja z ...)

Pleased to meet you

Приємно познайомитися (Prijemno poznajomytysia)

Good morning 
(Morning greeting)

Доброго ранку! (Dobroho ranku)

Good afternoon 
(Afternoon greeting)

Доброго дня (Dobroho dnia)

Good evening 
(Evening greeting)

Доброго вечора (Dobroho večora)

Good night

На добраніч (Na dobranič)

(Parting phrases)

До побачення (Do pobačennja)

Good luck

Щасти вам/тобі! (Ščasty vam/tobi)
Нехай щастить! (Nechaj ščastytʼ)
На все добре! (Na vse dobre)

(Toasts used when drinking)

Будьмо (Budʼmo)
За здоровя (Za zdorovja)

Have a nice day

Гарного дня (Harnoho dnja)

Bon appetit / 
Have a nice meal

Смачного! (Smačnoho)

Bon voyage / 
Have a good journey

Щасливої подорожі (Ščaslyvoji podoro�i)

I understand

Я розумію (Ja rozumiju)

I donot understand

Я не розумію (Ja ne rozumiju)


Так (Tak)


Ні (Ni)


Може бути (Mo�e buty)

I donot know

Я не знаю (Ya ne znayu)

Please speak more slowly

Ви не могли б розмовляти повільніше
(Vy ne mogly b rozmovljaty poviľniše) - frm
Розмовляй повільніше
(Rozmovliaj poviľniše) - inf

Please say that again

Повторіть, будь ласка (Povtorít bud láska)

Please write it down

Запишіть це, якщо маєте ласку
(Zapyšiť, jakščo majete lasku)
Будь ласка записати це
(Buď laska zapysaty ce)

Do you speak Ukrainian?

Ви розмовляєте українською?
(Vy rozmovliajete ukrajinśkoju)

Yes, a little
(reply to Do you speak ...?)

Так, трохи (Tak, trochy)

Speak to me in Ukrainian

Говоріть до мене українською
(Hovorít do méne ukrajínśkoju)

How do you say ... in Ukrainian?

Як сказати українською ...?
(Jak skazaty ukrajinśkoju ...?)

Excuse me

Перепрошую! (Pereprošuju)

How much is this?

Скільки це коштує? (Skiľky ce koštuje?)


Вибачте! (Vybačte)


Будь ласка (Bud laska)

Thank you

Дякую (Diakuju)
Дуже дякую (Du�e diakuju)

Reply to thank you

Прошу будь ласка
(Prošu, buď laska)

Wheres the toilet?

Де туалет? (De tualet?)

This gentleman will pay for everything

Цей пан платить за все (Cej pan platityť za vse)

This lady will pay for everything

Ця пані платить за все (Cia pani platityť za vse)

Would you like to dance with me?

Хочеш зi мною потанцювати?
(Chočeš zi mnoiu potanciuvaty?) - inf
Хочете зi мною потанцювати?
(Chočete zi mnoiu potanciuvaty?) - frm

I miss you

Я сумую за тобою (Ya sumuyu za toboyu) - sg
Я сумую за вами (Ya sumuyu za vamy) - pl

I love you

Я тебе кохаю (Ja tebe kochaju)
Я тебе люблю (Ja tebe liubliu)

Get well soon

Видужуй[те] (Vydu�uj[te])

Go away!

Іди геть! (Idý het) - sg
Ідіть геть! (Idít het) - pl
Забирайся! (Zabyrájsia) - inf

Leave me alone!

Залиште мене у спокої!
(Zalyšte mene u spokoji)


Допоможіть! (Dopomo�iť!)


Пожежа! (Po�e�a!)


Стій! (Stij!)

Call the police!

Викличте міліцію
(Vyklyčte miliciju)

Christmas and New Year greetings

Веселого Різдва і з Новим Роком
(Veseloho Rizdva i z Novym Rokom)
Різдвом Христовим (Rizdvom Khrystovim)
Христос Родився (Khrystos Rodyvsya)
Христос народився (Khristos narodivsya) 
Christ is born
Славіте Його (Slavite Yoho)
Let us glorify Him (reply)
Щасливого нового року (Ščaslyvoho novoho roku)
Happy New Year

Easter greetings

Христос Воскрес! (Khrystos Voskres!)
Christ is Risen!
Воїстину Воскрес! (Voyistynu Voskres!)
Truly He is Risen! - reply
З Великодніми святами
(Z Velykodnimy sviatamy)

Birthday greetings

Многая Літа (Mnohaja Lita) = "many summers"
З днем народження (Z dnem narod�ennia)

One language is never enough

Однієї мови ніколи не досить
(Odnijeji movy nikoly ne dosyt)
Однієї мови ніколи не достатньо
(Odnijeji movy nikoly ne dostatno)

My hovercraft is full of eels
Why this phrase?

Моє судно на повітряній подушці наповнене вуграми
(Moje sudno na povitrianij podušci napovnene vuhrami)