Kyrgzstan is a landlocked, Central Asian state bordering China, and became an independent nation with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. It has some oil and gas and a developing gold mining sector, but relies on imports for most of its energy needs. Resentment at widespread poverty and ethnic divisions between north and south occasionally spill over into violence, and the countrys first two post-Soviet presidents were swept from power by popular discontent.

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Kyrgyzstan (/kɜrɡɪˈstɑːn/ kur-gi-STAHN; Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан Kyrgyzstan (IPA: [qɯrʁɯsˈstɑn]); Russian: Киргизия or Кыргызстан), officially the Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz:Кыргыз Республикасы Kyrgyz Respublikasy; Russian: Кыргызская Республика Kyrgyzskaya Respublika), formerly known as Kirghizia, is a country located in Central Asia. Landlocked and mountainous, Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east. Itscapital and largest city is Bishkek.
Kyrgyzstans history spans over 2,000 years, encompassing a variety of cultures and empires. Although geographically isolated by its highly mountainous terrain – which has helped preserve its ancient culture – Kyrgyzstan has historically been at the crossroads of several great civilizations, namely as part of the Silk Road and other commercial and cultural routes. Though long inhabited by a succession of independent tribes and clans, Kyrgyzstan has periodically come under foreign domination due to its strategic location, attaining sovereignty as a nation-state only after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Since independence, Kyrgyzstan has officially been a unitary parliamentary republic, although it continues to endure ethnic conflicts,revolts, economic troubles, transitional governments, and political party conflicts. Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Turkic Council, the TÜRKSOYcommunity and the United Nations.
Ethnic Kyrgyz make up the majority of the countrys 5.7 million people, followed by significant minorities of Uzbeks and Russians. The official language, Kyrgyz, is closely related to the other Turkic languages, although Russian remains widely spoken, a legacy of a century-long policy of Russification. The majority of the population (64 percent) are nondenominational Muslims. In addition to its Turkic origins, Kyrgyz culture bears elements of Persian, Mongolian, and Russian influence.


Population: 2000/4,955,000 - 2050/6,882,000 (113 nation in 2050 population)
Christian 5.3%, Evangelical 0.7%
Fertiltiy Rate: 2000/2.5 - 2050/1.85
Median Age: 2000/22.5 - 2050/38.3


Transport in Kyrgyzstan is severely constrained by the countrys alpine topography. Roads have to snake up steep valleys, cross passes of 3,000 m (9,843 ft) altitude and more, and are subject to frequent mud slides and snow avalanches. Winter travel is close to impossible in many of the more remote and high-altitude regions.

Railways: The Kyrgyz Railway is currently responsible for railway development and maintenance in the country. The Chuy Valley in the north and the Fergana Valley in the south were endpoints of the Soviet Unions rail system in Central Asia. Following the emergence of independent post-Soviet states, the rail lines which were built without regard for administrative boundaries have been cut by borders, and traffic is therefore severely curtailed. The small bits of rail lines within Kyrgyzstan, about 370 km of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) broad gauge in total, have little economic value in the absence of the former bulk traffic over long distances to and from such centers as Tashkent, Almaty and the cities of Russia.

Highways: With support from the Asian Development Bank, a major road linking the north and southwest from Bishkek to Osh has recently been completed. This considerably eases communication between the two major population centers of the country—the Chuy Valley in the north and the Fergana Valley in the South. An offshoot of this road branches off across a 3,500 meter pass into the Talas Valley in the northwest. Plans are now being formulated to build a major road from Osh into the Peoples Republic of China.
The total length of the road network in Kyrgyzstan is approximately 34,000 km. Of them, 18,810 km are public roads directly subordinated to the Ministry of Transport and Communications, and 15,190 km - other roads (village, agricultural).

Airports: At the end of the Soviet period there were about 50 airports and airstrips in Kyrgyzstan, many of them built primarily to serve military purposes in this border region so close to China. Only a few of them remain in service today.
There are four airports with international flights, namely in Bishkek, Osh, Tamchy and Karakol.



Кыргыз тили (Kyrgyz)


Кош келиңиз! (Kosh kelingiz!) - sg/frm
Кош келиңиздер! (Kosh kelingizder!) - pl/frm

(General greeting)

Салам! (Salam!) - sg/inf
Саламатсыңбы! (Salamatsyngby!) - sg/inf
Саламатсыңарбы! (Salamatsyngarby!) - sg/inf
Саламатсызбы! (Salamatsyzby!) - sg/frm
Саламатсыздарбы! (Salamatsyzdarby!) - pl/frm
Саламатчылык! (Salamatchylyk) - reply/frm
Ассалом алейкум! (Assalom aleykum!) - m/>m
Алейкум Ассалам! (Aleykum Assalam!) - reply
Саламат! (Salamat!) - short reply
Саламатчылык! (Salamatchylyk) - full reply
Арыбаңыз! (Arybangyz!) - sg/frm
Бар болуңуз! (Bar bolunguz!) - reply

How are you?

Кандайсың? (Kandaysyng?) - sg/inf
Кандайсыз? (Kandaysyz?) - sg/frm
Сиздин ишиңиз кандай?
(Sizdin ishingiz kanday?) - sg/frm
Ден соолугуңуз кандай?
(Den soolugunguz kanday?) - sg/frm
Жакшысыңбы? (Jakshysyngby?) - sg/inf
Жакшысызбы? (Jakshysyzby?) - sg/frm

Reply to How are you?

Жакшы, рахмат. Өзүңүз кандайсыз?
Jakshy, rakhmat. Özüngüz kandaysyz?) - sg/frm

Long time no see

Көрүшпөгөнүбүзгө канча болду
(Körüshpögönübüzgö kancha boldu) - frm

Whats your name?

Сенин атың ким? (Senin atyng kim?) - sg/inf
Сиздин атыңыз ким? (Sizdin atyngyz kim?) - sg/frm

My name is ...

Менин атым ... (Menin atym ...)

Where are you from?

Сиз кайдан келдиңиз?
(Siz kaydan keldingiz?) - sg/frm

Im from ...

Мен ...-дан келдим (Men ...-dan keldim)

Pleased to meet you

Таанышканыма кубанычтамын!
(Taanyshkanyma kubanychtamyn!)

Good morning 
(Morning greeting)

Кутмандуу таңыңыз менен!
(Kutmanduu tanyngyz menen!) - sg/frm

Good afternoon 
(Afternoon greeting)

Кутмандуу күнүңүз менен!
(Kutmanduu kününgüz menen!) - sg/frm

Good evening 
(Evening greeting)

Кайырлуу кеч! (Kayryluu kech!)

Good night

Түнүңүз бейпил болсун! (Tününgüz beypil bolsun!) - sg/frm

(Parting phrases)

Көрүшкөнчө (Körüshkönchö) - inf
Саламатта бар (Salamatta bar) - sg/inf (if a person leaving)
Саламатта барыңыз (Salamatta baryngyz) - sg/frm
Саламатта баргыла (Salamatta bargyla) - pl/inf
Саламатта барыңыздар (Salamatta baryngyzdar) - pl/frm
Жакшы бар (Jakshy bar) - sg/inf (if a person leaving)
Жакшы барыңыз (Jakshy baryngyz) - sg/frm
Жакшы баргыла (Jakshy bargyla) - pl/inf
Жакшы барыңыздар (Jakshy baryngyzdar) - pl/frm
Саламатта кал (Salamatta kal) - sg/inf (if a person staying)
Саламатта калыңыз (Salamatta kalyngyz) - sg/frm
Саламатта калгыла (Salamatta kalgyla) - pl/inf
Саламатта калыңыздар (Salamatta kalyngyzdar) - pl/frm
Жакшы кал (Jakshy kal) - sg/inf (if a person staying)
Жакшы калыңыз (Jakshy kalyngyz) - sg/frm
Жакшы калгыла (Jakshy kalgyla) - pl/inf
Жакшы калыңыздар (Jakshy kalyngyzdar) - pl/frm
Жакшы тур (Jakshy tur) - sg/inf (if a person staying)
Жакшы туруңуз (Jakshy turunguz) - sg/frm
Жакшы тургула (Jakshy turgula) - pl/inf
Жакшы туруңуздар (Jakshy turunguzdar) - pl/frm
Кош бол (Kosh bol) - sg/inf (for a long time)
Кош болуңуз (Kosh bolunguz) - sg/frm
Кош болгула (Kosh bolgula) - pl/inf
Кош болуңуздар (Kosh bolunguzdar) - pl/frm

Good luck

Ак жол каалайм! (Ak jol kaalaym!)

(Toasts used when drinking)

Ден соолугубуз үчүн! (Den soolugubuz üchün!)

Have a nice day

Күнүңүз жакшы өтсүн! (Kününgüz jaksy ötsün!) - sg/frm

Bon appetit / 
Have a nice meal

Тамагыңыз даамдуу болсун! (Tamagyngyz daamduu bolson!) - sg/frm
Тамагыңыз таттуу болсун! (Tamagyngyz tattuu bolsun!) - sg/frm

Bon voyage / 
Have a good journey

Жолуң шыдыр болсун! (Jolung shydyr bolsun!) - sg/inf
Жолуңар шыдыр болсун! (Jolungar shydyr bolsun!) - pl/inf
Жолуңуз шыдыр болсун! (Jolunguz shydyr bolsun!) - sg/frm
Жолуңуздар шыдыр болсун! (Jolunguzdar shydyr bolsun!) - pl/frm

I understand

Түшүндүм (Tüshündüm)

I dont understand

Түшүнгөн жокмун (Tüshüngön jokmun)

I dont know

Билбейм (Bilbeym)

Please speak more slowly

Кичи пейилдикке, бир аз жайыраак сүйлөңүзчү
(Kichi peyildikke, bir az jayyraak süylöngüzchü) - sg/frm

Please say that again

Кичи пейилдикке, дагы бир ирет кайталасаңыз
(Kichi peyildikke, dagy bir iret kaytalasangyz) - sg/frm

Please write it down

Кичи пейилдикке, жазып бересизби?
(Kichi peyildikke, jazyp beresizbi?) - sg/frm

Do you speak English?

Сиз англисче сүйлөйсүзбү?
(Siz anglische süylöysüzbü?) - sg/frm

Do you speak Kyrgyz?

Сиз кыргызча сүйлөйсүзбү?
(Siz kyrgyzcha süylöysüzbü?) - sg/frm

Yes, a little
(reply to Do you speak ...?)

Бир аз сүйлөймүн
(Bir az süylöymün)

Speak to me in Kyrgyz

Мага кыргызча сүйлөңүз
(Maga kyrgyzcha süylönüz) - sg/frm

How do you say ... in Kyrgyz?

... кыргызча кандай айтылат? (... kyrgyzcha kanday aytylat?)

Excuse me

Кечиресиз (Kechiresiz) - sg/frm (for attention)
Кечиресиң (Kechiresing) - sg/inf (for attention)
Кечириңиз (Kechiringiz) - sg/frm (begging pardon)

How much is this?

Бул канча турат? (Bul kancha turat?)


Кечириңиз (Kechiringiz) - sg/frm
Кечирип коюңуз (Kechirip koyunguz) - sg/frm


Кичи пейилдик үчүн! (Kichi peyildik üchün!)
Кичи пейилдикке ... (Kichi peyildikke ... )
Кичи пейилдикке ... суранам, өтүнөм (Kichi peyildikke ... suranam, ötünöm)

Thank you

Рахмат (Rakhmat)
Чоң рахмат (Chong rakhmat)

Reply to thank you

Эчтеке эмес (Echteke emes)

Wheres the toilet?

Даараткана кайда? (Daaratkana kayda?)

This gentleman will pay for everything

Бул мырза баарын төлөп берет
(Bul myrz baaryn tölöp beret)

This lady will pay for everything

Бул айым баарын төлөп берет
(Bul ayym baaryn tölöp beret)

Would you like to dance with me?

Сизди бийге чакырсам болобу?
(Sizdi biyge chakyrsam bolobu?) - sg/frm

I miss you

Мен сени сагындым (Men seni sagyndym) - sg/inf

I love you

Мен сени сүйөм! (Men seni süyöm!) - sg/inf

Get well soon

Тез сакайыңыз! (Tez sakayyngyz!) - sg/frm
Тез сакайып кетиңиз! (Tez sakayyp ketingiz!) - sg/frm

Go away!

Жогол! (Jogol!) - sg/inf
Жогол нары! (Jogol nary!) - sg/inf

Leave me alone!

Мени тим койгула! (Meni tim koygula!) - pl/inf


Жардамга! (Jardamga!)


Өрт! (Ört!)


Токто! (Tokto!)

Call the police!

Милицияны чакыргыла! (Militsiyany chakyrgyla!) - pl/inf

Christmas and New Year greetings

Жаңы жылыңыз менен! (Jangy jylyngyz menen!) - sg/frm
Жаратканнын туысымен жaнa жангы жылынгыз кутты болсун!
(Jaratkannyn tuysymen jana jangy jylyngyz kutty bolsun!)

Easter greetings

Иса тирилди! (Isa tirildi!)
Чын эле тирилди! (Chyn ele tirildi!) - reply

Birthday greetings

Туулган күнүң менен! (Tuulgan kününg menen!) - sg/inf
Туулган күнүңүз менен! (Tuulgan kününgüz menen!) - sg/frm

One language is never enough

Бир эле эне тилин билүү жетиштүү эмес
(Bir ele ene tilin bilüü jetistüü emes)
Бир тил аздык кылат
(Bir til azdyk kylat)