Azerbaijan (Caucus)

The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918 and became the first Muslim-majority democratic and secular republic. It was also the first Muslim-majority country to have operas, theaters and modern universities.The country was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1920 as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence in October 1991, before the official dissolution of the USSR. Earlier, in September 1991, the disputed Armenian-majority Nagorno-Karabakh region re-affirmed its willingness to create a separate state as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. The region, effectively independent since the beginning of the Nagorno Karabakh War in 1991, is internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan until a final solution to its status is found through negotiations facilitated by the OSCE.

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The area was long a part of the Austro Hungarian Empire until the Empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk[6] (1850–1937), who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935. He was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš (1884–1948).

The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the last half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the opportunities for limited participation in political life available under the Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký (1798–1876) founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austroslavism and worked for reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect Middle-European people against Russian and German threats.

An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to Reichsrat (Austrian Parliament), the first time being from 1891 to 1893 in the Young Czech Party and again from 1907 to 1914 in the Czech Realist Party, which he founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl.

During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia, in exchange for their support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists.


Population: 2000/8,121,000 - 2050/10,579,000 (93 nation in 2050 population)
Christian 2.7%, Evangelical, 0.2%
Fertility Rate: 2000/2 - 2050/1.85
Median Age: 2000/25.6 - 2050/40.6


The transport in Azerbaijan involves air traffic, waterways and railroads. All transportation services in Azerbaijan except for oil and gas pipelines are regulated by the Ministry of Transportation of Azerbaijan Republic.

Railways: There are 2,932 km (1,822 mi) of rail tracks out of which only 2,117 km (1,315 mi) are in common carrier service and 810 km (500 mi) are industrial lines. 240 km (150 mi) of rail tracks were occupied by Armenia between 1988 and 1994 and due to Armenian occupation, the railway link between Nakhichevan and Azerbaijan proper has been broken since 1991.Of the 2,932 km (1,822 mi) of rail tracks, 72% or 2,117 km (1,315 mi) are single track and 28% or 815 km (506 mi) are double track.
Of the total exploitation length of route 43% or 1,272 km (790 mi) are electrified at 3 kV (3,000 V) DC.
About 38% of the length of the railway routes or 1,126 km (700 mi) are equipped with full automatic blocks and 16% or 479 km (298 mi) are equipped with centralized dispatchers.

Highways: There are about 25,000 kilometers of roads in Azerbaijan, serving domestic cargo traffic and giving access to international main highways. Highways are mostly in fair condition and need an upgrade to international standards in a view to accommodate growing transit traffic. Main and rural roads are in poor condition and in urgent need of rehabilitation and maintenance. The total vehicle fleet in Azerbaijan was about 517,000 in 2004, with about 49 private passenger cars per 1,000 inhabitants, which is quite low compared to European benchmarks but rapidly increasing due to the fast economic growth. Road transport accounted for 54% of all freight in 2003, up from about 48% in 1999.

Airports: There are regular flights between Azerbaijan and former Soviet countries, UK, Germany, France, Austria, Italy, Israel, Iran, Turkey, UAE, China, Georgia and has a cargo flights in UAE, Turkey, Luxembourg, Germany, China, Kyrgyzstan Afghanistan and Iraq. The national airline is Azerbaijan Airlines (AZAL). There are 5 international airports located in Baku, Ganja, Nakhchivan, Lenkaran, Zaqatala. Heydar Aliyev International Airport in Baku reopened in 1999 after a US$64 million upgrading and extension financed by Turkish company Enka. The airport can now handle 1,600 passengers an hour. The new runways are also able to serve jumbojets. The complete overhaul of the international airport in Nakhchivan has been completed in May 2004. The US$32 million reconstruction project of Ganja Airport has been launched by the Government and was completed by mid-2006.



Azerbaijani (Azərbaycan dili)


Xoş gəlmişsiniz!

(General greeting)

Salam əleyküm
Əleyküm salam (reply)

How are you?

Sən necəsən?
Nə var?
Nə yox? (inf)
Siz necəsiniz? (frm)

Reply to How are you?

Sağ olun, yaxşıyam

Whats your name?

Sənin adın nədir? (inf)
Sizin adınız nədir? (frm)

Reply to How are you?

Mənim adım ...

Where are you from?

Haralısan? (inf)
Haralısınız? (frm)

Im from ...

... deyil

Pleased to meet you

Tanış olmağıma çox şadam
Çox şadam (reply)

Good morning 
(Morning greeting)

Sabahınız xeyir

Good day/afternoon

Yaxşi günHər vaxtınız xeyir

Good evening 
(Evening greeting)

Axşamınız xeyir

Good night

Axşamınız xeyir
Gecən xeyrə

(Parting phrases)

Sağol, Xudahafiz (inf)
Sağolun, Salamat qalın
Görüşənədək (frm)

Good luck

Yaxşı şanslar

(Toasts used when drinking)

Afiyët oslun!

Have a nice day

Yaxşı günlər!

Bon appetit / 
Have a nice meal

Nuş olsun

Bon voyage / 
Have a good journey

Yaxşı səfərlər! (frm)
Gülə Gülə (inf)

I dont understand

Mən sizi başa düşmürəm

Please speak more slowly

Zəhmət olmasa asta-asta danışın

Please write it down

Zəhmət olmasa, yazın
Bunu yaza bilərsinizmi

Do you speak English?

Siz Ingiliscə danışırsınızmı?

Do you speak Azerbaijani?

Siz Azərbaycanca danışırsınızmı?

Yes, a little
(reply to Do you speak ...?)

Mən bir az Azərbaycanca danışıram

How do you say ... in Azerbaijani?

Azərbaycanca ... necə demək lazımdır?

Excuse me

Üzr istəyirəm

How much is this?

Bu neçəyədir?


Məni bağışlayın
Üzr istəyirəm

Thank you

Təşəkkür edirəm
Çox sağ ol
Çox sağ olun (pl)

Reply to thank you

Xoş gəldini

Could you help me?

Mene kömek ede bilersiniz?

What is the time?

Saat neçedir?

Wheres the toilet?

Ayaq yolu haradadır?
Tualet haradadır?

This gentleman will pay for everything

Bu adam hər şey ödəyəcək

This lady will pay for everything

Bu xanım hər şey ödəyəcək

Would you like to dance with me?

Bu rəqsi mənə lütf edərsinizmi?

I love you

Mən səni sevirəm

Get well soon

Keçmiş Olsun




Od var!
Yanğın var!



Call the police!

Polis çağırın

Christmas and New Year greetings

Milad bayramini və yeni iliniz mübarək
Marjinal vǝ yeni ilin mübarǝk
Yeni Iliniz Mübarək
Тǝзǝ илиниз јaxши олсун
Təzə iliniz yaxşı olsun
 (Happy New Year)

Easter greetings

Pasxa bayramınız müqəddəs olsun

Birthday greetings

Ad günün mübarək