Latvia (Latvian: Latvija [ˈlatvija]), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe, one of the three Baltic states. It is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, and Belarus to the southeast, as well as amaritime border to the west alongside Sweden. Latvia has 2,070,371 inhabitants and a territory of 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi). The country has a temperate seasonal climate. Latvia is a democratic parliamentary republic established in 1918. The capital city is Riga, the European Capital of Culture 2014. Latvian is the official language. Latvia is a unitary state, divided into 118 administrative divisions, of which 109 are municipalities and 9 are cities.












Latvia lies on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea on the level northwestern part of the rising East European platform, between Estonia and Lithuania. About 98% of the country lies under 200 m (656 ft) elevation. With the exception of the coastal plains, the ice age divided Latvia into three main regions: the morainic Western and Eastern uplands and the Middle lowlands. Latvia holds over 12,000 rivers, only 17 of which are longer than 100 km (60 mi), and over 3,000 small lakes, most of which are eutrophic. The major rivers include the Daugava, the Lielupe, the Gauja, the Venta and the Salaca. Woodlands, more than half of which are pinewoods, cover around 41% of the country. Other than peat, dolomite, and limestone, natural resources are scarce. Latvia has 531 km (330 mi) of sandy coastline, and the ports of Liepāja and Ventspils provide important warm-water harbors for the Baltic coast.
Area of Latvia is larger than the area of many European countries (Albania, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Luxembourg,Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Slovakia, Slovenia or Switzerland). Its strategic location has instigated many wars between rival powers on its territory. As recently as 1944, the USSR granted Russia the Abrene region, which Latvia contested after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Latvia encompasses 64,589 square kilometers and is an extension of the East European Plain. Its flat terrain differs little from that of its surrounding neighbors. Latvias only distinct border is the Baltic Sea coast, which extends for 531 kilometers. Its neighbors include Lithuania on the south (453 kilometers of common border), Estonia on the north (267 kilometers), Russia on the east (217 kilometers), and Belarus on the southeast (141 kilometers). Prior to World War II, Latvia bordered eastern Poland, but as a result of boundary changes by the Soviet Union, this territory was attached to Belarus. Also, in 1944 Russia annexed the northeastern border district of Latvia, known as Abrene, including the town of Pytalovo.
Latvia cannot claim valuable natural resources. Nevertheless, the abundant presence of such materials as limestone for cement (6 billion cubic meters or 8 billion cubic yards), gypsum (165 million cubic meters or 216 million cubic yards), high-quality clay (375 million cubic meters or 490 million cubic yards), dolomite (615 million cubic meters or 804 million cubic yards), peat (480 million tonnes, 530 million short tons or 470 million long tons), and construction materials, including gravel and sand, satisfy local needs. Fish from the Baltic Sea is another potential export resource. Amber, million-year-old chunks of petrified pine pitch, is often found on the beaches of the Baltic Sea and is in high demand for jewelry. It has also had a symbolic impact on the country, which is often called Dzintarzeme, or Amberland. The future may hold potentially more valuable resources if oil fields are discovered in Latvian territorial waters, as some geologists have predicted.


Total population of            1.93 million
Jews for                               7.4%,
 Poles for                             3.4%
 Belarusians                        3.3%
Ukrainians                           2.2%
 Poles                                   2.2%
Lithuanians                         1.2%
 Romani people                  0.3%
Germans                              0.1%
Estonians                             0.1%
Latvians formed                  68.3%
others                                   1.3%
There were 290,660 non-citizens living in Latvia or 14.1%


Latvian Railways is the main state-owned railyway company in Latvia. Its daughter companies both carry out passengers services as well as carry a large quantity of freight cargo, and freight trains operate over the whole current passenger network, and a number of lines currently closed to passenger services.
There is also a narrow gauge railway between Gulbene and Aluksne, operated by the Industrial Heritage Trust, using Russian and Polish built heritage rolling stock. Three narrow gauge trains a day operate on the 33 km route between the two towns.

total: 2,347 km
Russian gauge: 2,314 km 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) gauge (270 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 33 km 750 mm (2 ft 5 1⁄2 in) gauge (2002)

Riga International Airport is the only major airport in Latvia, carrying around 5 million passengers annually. It is the largest airport in the Baltic states and has direct flights to over 80 destinations in 30 countries including a nonstop transatlantic flight to New York-JFK operated by Uzbekistan Airlines year-round. It is also the main hub of airBaltic.
In the recent years airBaltic operated also in Liepāja International Airport as well as Ventspils International Airport but operations in both of these airports were soon ceased.
Currently there are plans for further development in several regional airports, including Jūrmala Airport, Liepāja, Ventspils as well as Daugavpils International Airport.
As of 2003, there were a total of 51 airfields in Latvia, with 27 of them having paved runways.
Airports - with paved runways total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 16 (2003)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 24
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,523 to 2,438 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 20 (2003)



latviešu valoda (Latvian)


Laipni lūdzam

(General greeting)


How are you?

Kā jums klājas? (frm)
Kā tev iet? (inf)

Reply to How are you?

Paldies, labi. Un jums?

Long time no see

Sen neredzēts
Sen neredzēta

Whats your name?

Kā tevi sauc? (inf)
Kā Jūs sauc? (frm)

My name is ...

Mani sauc ...

Where are you from?

No kurienes Jūs esat?

Im from ...

Es esmu no ...

Pleased to meet you

Priecājos ar Jums iepazīties

Good morning 
(Morning greeting)


Good afternoon 
(Afternoon greeting)


Good evening 
(Evening greeting)


Good night

Ar labunakti

(Parting phrases)

Uz redzēšanos

Good luck

Lai tev veicas! (inf)
Lai Jums veicas! (frm)

(Toasts used when drinking)

Uz veselību!
Priekā! (in happiness)

Have a nice day

Lai jums laba diena

Bon appetit / 
Have a nice meal

Labu apetīti

Bon voyage / 
Have a good journey

Laimīgu ceļu

I understand

Es saprotu

I dont understand

Es nesaprotu





I dont know

Es nezinu

Please speak more slowly

Lūdzu, runājiet lēnāk

Please say that again

Lūdzu, pasakiet to vēlreiz

Please write it down

Vai Jūs nevarētu Lūdzu to uzrakstīt?
Vai Jūs lūdzu varētu to uzrakstīt?

Do you speak Latvian?

Vai Jūs runājat latviski?
Vai Jūs runājat latviešu valodā?

Yes, a little
(reply to Do you speak ...?)

Jā, nedaudz

How do you say ... in Latvian?

Kā latviešu valodā būs ...?

Excuse me

Piedodiet! (frm)
Piedod! (inf)
Atvainojiet! (frm)
Atvaino! (inf)

How much is this?

Cik tas maksā?


Piedodiet! (frm)
Piedo! (inf)
Atvainojiet! (frm)
Atvaino! (inf)

Thank you

Liels paldies

Reply to thank you

Vienmēr laipni

Wheres the toilet?

Kur ir tualete?

This gentleman will pay for everything

Šis kungs par visu samaksās

This lady will pay for everything

Šī kundze par visu samaksās

Would you like to dance with me?

Vai Jūs vēlaties dejot?

I miss you

Man tevis pietrūkst

I love you

Es tevi mīlu

Get well soon


Leave me alone!

Lieciet mani mierā!






Stāviet! (frm)
Stāvi! (inf)

Call the police!

Izsauciet policiju!

Christmas and New Year greetings

Priecīgus Ziemassvētkus un laimīgu Jauno gadu

Easter greetings

Priecīgas Lieldienas

Birthday greetings

Daudz laimes dzimšanas dienā!
Apsveicu dzimšanas dienā

One language is never enough

Ar vienu valodu nekad nepietiek

My hovercraft is full of eels
Why this phrase?

Mans transportlīdzeklis uz gaisa spilvena ir pilns ar zušiem
Mans gliseris ir pilns ar zušiem






Sr. No. Itinerary Name File

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