Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Greece to the west; Bulgaria to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. The Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, which together form the Turkish Straits, divide Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia.
Population- In 2010, the population of Turkey was estimated to be 73.7 million with a growth rate of 1.21% per annum (2009 figure). The population is relatively young with 25.9% falling in the 0-14 age bracket. According to the OECD/World Bank population statistics, from 1990 to 2008 the population growth in Turkey was 16 million or 29%.
Rail Transport: The TCDD - Türkiye Devlet Demir YollarÄ± (Turkish State Railways) possess 10,984 km of 1,435 mm(4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge, of which 2,336 km are electrified (2005).
1. Cities with commuter rail systems: Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir
1. Total network: 426,906 km
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