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The vast territory of Kazakhstan spans across 2.7 million km ². With a low population density, dissociation centers of industry and agriculture, and remoteness from world markets, the need for different modes of transportation in Kazakhstan are vital.

Railways: Total: Transportation by rail in Kazakhstan is very important.Kazakhstan Railways provide 68% of all cargo and passenger traffic to over 57% of the country. 15,079 km in common carrier service, excluding industrial lines.
Broad Gauge: 15,079 km of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) gauge (4,000 km electrified) (2008).Kazakhstan Temir Zholy (KTZ) is the national railway company.

Highway: In 2009, the country commenced the construction of the "Western Europe - Western China" highway, which will be completed by 2013. The total length of the road will be 8445 km, of which 2,787 km will be in Kazakhstan, (Aktobe, Kyzylorda, South Kazakhstan, Zhambyl and Almaty oblasts). The thickness of the asphalt and concrete pavement will be 80 cm (31 in), and the expected lifespan of the highway will be 25 years, without a major overhaul, and the maximum speed limit 120 km/h. The project includes a number of road bridges over rivers, road maintenance facilities, bus stop areas, avtopavilony, cattle trails, and electronic signage. Simultaneously with the construction of this highway, roads will be repaired and built in areas along its route.

Airports: Kazakhstan has a total of 97 airports (2012) However, it is quoted as having a total of 449 airports in (2001).
The large area of the country and the associated long distances makes air travel a very important component in domestic travel.

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