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Railways
The railroad system totals only 680 kilo metres (420 mi) of track,  all of it 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) broad gauge. The principle segments are in the southwestern region and connect the capital with the industrial areas of the Gissar and Vakhsh valleys and with Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. In 2000 a new line, theQurghonteppa – Kulyab railway, was completed and connected the Kulyab District with the central area of the country. Passenger transit through Tajikistan has been hindered by periodic failures of Tajik Railways to pay transit tariffs and by safety issues. Most international freight traffic is carried by train.
It is hoped that a 2009 agreement between the heads of state of Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan will modernize parts of Tajikistans rail system to allow more trade between Central Asian countries.

Highways
The total length of roads in the country is 27,800 kilometers, nearly all of which were built before 1991. Automobiles account for more than 90% of the total volume of passenger transportation and more than 80% of domestic freight transportation.
As of 2014 many highway and tunnel construction projects are underway or have recently been completed. Major projects include rehabilitation of the Dushanbe – Chanak (Uzbek border), Dushanbe – Kulma (Chinese border), Kurgan-Tube – Nizhny Pyanj (Afghan border) highways and construction of tunnels under the mountain passes of Anzob, Shakhristan, Shar-Shar  and Chormazak.  These were supported by international donor countries. China has invested approximately $720 million for infrastructure improvements in Tajikistan, including the rebuilding, widening and improvement of the road between Dushanbe and Khujand which as of August 2007 is proceeding using equipment, labor, and oversight from China.
In mid-2005 construction began on a bridge across the Panj River to Afghanistan which was funded by the United States and opened in August 2007, and plans called for construction of several other bridges ultimately connecting Tajikistan to warm-water ports to the south.
The Pakistan-Afghanistan-Tajikistan Highway, a new 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) long road is planned to pass through the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province and Dushanbe and in 2013 Tajikistan announced that all road construction on its side of the border had been completed.  According to President Zardari of Pakistan,
... [the] opening up of road links [is] critical to bringing the countries of the region closer together and for increasing trade and people to people contacts for the economic and social benefits of all countries.

Airports
In 2009 Tajikistan had 26 airports, 18 of which had paved runways, of which two had runways longer than 3,000 meters. Tajikistan has two domestic airlines (Tajik Air and Somon Air) and is also serviced by foreign air companies (mainly Russian). The countrys main airport is Dushanbe International Airport which, as of May 2014, had regularly scheduled flights to such major cities as Almaty, Baku, Bishkek, Delhi, Dubai, Frankfurt, Istanbul, Kabul, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Sharjah, Tehran, and Ürümqi amongst others.
No flights connect Dushanbe with Tashkent. The next largest airports behind Dushanbe are at Khujand and Kulob. As of 2007 air transport was said to be unreliable.

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